"Discount glyset 50mg amex, ."
By: Abbey Hughes, M.A., Ph.D.
- Assistant Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Unilateral visual loss in bright light: an unusual symptom of carotid artery occlusive disease cheap glyset 50 mg on line. High Cholesterol High levels of cholesterol may also increase stroke risk by not letting blood move freely through the arteries purchase cheapest glyset. The median lingual process of frogs: A bizarre character of Old World ranoids discovered in South American dendrobatids generic 50mg glyset otc. The other male controls no resources and as a consequence does not attract females purchase glyset 50mg fast delivery. Local symptoms include pain, dysuria, vaginal and urethral discharge, and tender inguinal lymphadenopathy. During the dry season in northeastern Costa Rica, none of eight species of hylid frogs reproduces even though some males of several species vocalize year-round. Over a century ago, Cope grouped the nine families then recognized into two groups: Trematodera (Cryptobranchidae) and Amphiumoidea (all other salamanders); he also suggested the derivation of the caecilians from the amphiumas. It appears as softening with punctate and linear hemorrhages in crowns of the gyri and can extend into the white matter in a triangular fashion with the apex in the white matter. Body functions Body structures Activities and Participation Environment Convention 2 Environmental factors are coded for every component. There may be concurrent myelopathy, typically of extrinsic or extramedullary type. By convention, the color of the 58 Chapter 4: Ultrasound in acute ischemic stroke pulsating artery is red. Only the base of the sperm tail is shown, and the head of the sperm has been shortened. You may hear from different people including family or members of your own healthcare team to not get your hopes up, or to only expect a certain amount of progress. The ionic concentration of the body is greater than that of the environment, and, if not regulated, water moves in, cells swell and possibly burst, and ions become too dilute. A fourth species, Sternotherus odoratus, comprised less than 2% of the turtle community. The rate of urine formation is decreased, and water begins to be reabsorbed from the dilute urine in the bladder. Submandibular Masses (50% benign, 50% malignant): same pathological types as for parotid tumors. Relationships between time estimation, memory, attention, and processing speed in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. In summary, we identified two critical functions for gestures that provided support for both the Interface Model and the Lexical Facilitation Model. The Hutt adaptation of the Bender-Gestalt Test: Rapid screening and intensive diagnosis (4th ed. Phylogenetic relationships of Pseudis and Lysapsus (Anura, Hylidae, Hylinae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Those changes occur in childhood and adolescence and do not necessarily correspond to the future sites of atherosclerotic plaques. Although a high school graduate, she was not employed and spent most of her time alone at home. Chapter Summary Acute infection in the week preceding stroke is an independent risk factor for cerebral infarction; the "infectious burden concept" states that the aggregate burden of microbial antigens determines stroke risk rather than the occurrence of a single pathogen. Silent hemorrhages seen on blood-sensitive gradient echo sequences have also been found quite frequently and their clinical significance as risk factors has not been fully determined. Plan not to have children, perhaps plan not to even marry, or perhaps try to pack a lot of living into a short time? Bleeding time is long management Be certain that correct factor deficiency has been identified. Determining reserve size depends greatly upon the biology of the species targeted for preservation. An important general rule for ultrasound is the greater the degree of stenosis, the higher the velocity. In laboratory experiments with pairwise choices between gravel sizes, salamanders preferred large gravel; however, additional laboratory experiments using only large gravel in the presence of crayfish showed that salamanders chose locations farthest away from crayfish. Take Some Company Make your vacation relaxing by taking along someone who can do the majority of the communication work along the way. Territories defended by large males have higher larval survivorship because they have lower densities of leeches that feed on the eggs and tadpoles. Content: Two genera, Celsiella and Hyalinobatrachium, with 2 and 28 species, respectively. It is, however, the initial emergence of a complex multi-component trait that usually poses a challenge for evolution through natural selection, and that is what we are trying to explain here. Major extracranial bleeding events and intracranial hemorrhages were rare and therefore risk estimates are imprecise. Content: Four subfamilies, Bolitoglossinae, Hemidactylinae, Plethodontinae, and Spelerpinae.
A swallowing maneuver that helps close the airway entrance before and during the swallow; it helps close the false vocal folds by tilting the arytenoid cartilage anteriorly to discount glyset uk the base of the epiglottis before and during the swallow; arytenoids are tilted when the breath is held and the patient bears down; to buy glyset from india implement this maneuver purchase generic glyset online, ask the patient to: inhale and hold the breath tightly by bearing down swallow while holding the breath and bearing down Supraglottic Swallow Maneuver trusted glyset 50mg. The play of the child with autism lacks sophistication in both structured and unstructured situations. Signs & Symptoms Tremor of extremities and tongue, myoclonic jerks, Chvostek sign (common), Trousseau sign (rarely), tetany (rarely unless concomitant hypocalcemia), general muscular weakness (particularly respiratory muscles), coma, vertigo, nystagmus and movement disorders (rarely). Inclusions: impairments such as monoparesis and monoplegia b 7302 Power of muscles of one side of the body Functions related to the force generated by the contraction of the muscles and muscle groups found on the left or right side of the body. With this technique, the goal is to change the arousal level when early signs of a seizure appear. Early Amniotes Carroll, 1988; deBraga and Rieppel, 1997; Gaffney, 1980; Gauthier et al. Establishment Phase: Training Sequence Sound in Isolation Sound in isolation with Continuous Reinforcement (crf) Nonsense Syllable Level Sound in initial position of nonsense syllables (crf) Sound in final position of nonsense syllables (crf) Sound in medial position of nonsense syllables (crf) Word Level Sound in word-initial position (50% rf) Sound in word-final position (50% rf) Sound in word-medial position (50% rf) Phrase Level Sound in word-initial position produced in two- or three-word phrases (50% rf) 89 Articulation: Specific Programs A Sound in word-final position produced in two- or Sound in word-medial position produced in two- or three-word phrases (50% rf) three-word phrases (50% rf) Sentence Level Sound in word-initial position produced in four- to six-word sentences (50% rf) Sound in word-final position produced in four- or six-word sentences (50% rf) Sound in word-medial position produced in four- to six-word sentences (50% rf) Contextual Reading Level (Go to the next level if the client is a nonreader) Sound in orally read sentences (crf) Story Narration Level Sound in story retelling (after silently reading a story) (crf) Picture Description Level Sound in sentences and phrases produced to describe a story (crf) Conversational Speech Level Sound in conversational speech (crf) Sound in conversational speech (10% rf) Administer the criterion test Move to the Transfer Phase and begin training on new sounds Transfer Phase: Training Sequence Home Training Sound in words, repeats the words (crf) Sound in phrases, repeats the phrases (crf) Sound in sentences, repeats the sentences (crf) Sound in oral reading or picture description (crf) Sound in conversation (crf) Clinician Training in Different Settings Conversation outside the clinic room door (crf) Conversation down the hall (crf) 90 Articulation: Specific Programs A Conversation outside the clinic building or in an Conversation in playground, cafeteria, or away from Conversation outside classroom (crf) other room (crf) school or clinic (crf) Training in Classroom Conversation with clinician in classroom (crf) Conversation with clinician and teacher in classroom (crf) Conversation in small-group activity (crf) Conversation in large-group activity (crf) Speech or ``show and tell' in front of the class (crf) Administer the transfer criterion test Maintenance Phase: Training Sequence Conversation during weekly meetings for the first 4 weeks (crf) Conversation during one monthly meeting (crf) Dismiss the client Baker, R. The heterogeneity of health levels in an elderly population must be considered when assessing this population and using normative data. These are signs of compression of the median nerve at the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome). Likewise, Plethodon jordani in the southern Appalachians has brilliant red markings that warn of its distastefulness. It also functions as a major respiratory organ, through which they obtain oxygen and expel carbon dioxide, and the skin must be kept moist for exchange of gases to occur. Pure sensory stroke is usually related to a lesion in the ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus, and less frequently the corona radiata. Impairments of procedures for implementing complex language are due to disruption of frontal attention processes. Auditory comprehension: these outcome measures specifically assess comprehension of heard speech sounds. Cross References Coma; Delirium; Encephalopathy; Obtundation Stutter Stutter, one of the reiterative speech disorders, is usually a developmental problem, but may be acquired in aphasia with unilateral or bilateral hemisphere lesions. The reported rates are probably substantial underestimates, however, since families are relatively unlikely to confess to a suicide and physicians or medical examiners unlikely to investigate deaths under these circumstances. The body of the oviduct has an albumin-secreting portion followed by a thicker shell-secreting portion. Studies of the temporal lobe-limbic system of autistic populations reveal volumetric reductions, hypofunctional activity, and abnormalities in neuronal size and density (Schultz et al. Termites and early life history stages of ants (eggs, larvae) are likely a major food. Therefore, tricuspid valve endocarditis, which is common among intravenous drug users, rarely leads to stroke. This association is at least partly mediated by the well-studied positive relationship between salt intake and blood pressure . Amiodarone treatment leads to substantial iodine overload and is associated with (1) acute, transient suppression of thyroid function, (2) hypothyroidism, or (3) thyrotoxicosis. Reconstructing this history has been a challenge, largely because the fossil record is so incomplete, but also because methods used to reconstruct relationships (phylogenies) continue to change. Note: normal Hb A2 does not rule out beta thalassemia (eg: delta beta thalassemia). These latter issues may merit targeting other cell populations such as olfactory basal stem cells for stable incorporation. Inclusions: impairments such as in dehydration and rehydration b 54500 Water retention Functions involved in keeping water in the body. Differential Diagnosis Other disorders of heart, lungs, and pulmonary vasculature must be considered. Content: Seven genera, Anodonthyla, Cophyla, Madecassophryne, Platypelis, Plethodontohyla, Rhombophryne, and Stumpffia, with 57 species. The leptodactylid frog Leptodactylus fallax is highly unusual in that males construct and fight over nesting burrows to which they attract females by calling, and, after a foam nest is constructed and eggs deposited, the female not only remains with the nest and defends it, but feeds the larvae unfertilized eggs. Cross References Asynergia; Cerebellar syndromes; Dysdiadochokinesia; Parkinsonism; Rebound phenomenon; Saccades Dysmorphopsia the term dysmorphopsia has been proposed for impaired vision for shapes, a visual recognition defect in which visual acuity, colour vision, tactile recognition, and visually guided reaching movements are intact. Chromosomal and gene sequence data indicate that Sphenodon is sister to squamates. The administrators then reviewed both sets of scores for all five administrations, discussed discrepancies, and reached a consensus regarding scoring procedures for subsequent evaluations (see Table 4 for order of administrations and administrators). In conduction aphasia, it is frequent to find some initial hemiparesis, but it tends to disappear or at least decrease in severity. Eggshell composition of squamate reptiles: Relationship between eggshell permeability and amino acid distribution. Biology: Mantellids are terrestrial or arboreal frogs; most species live in semiarid to wet forested habitats. Mixed extrasylvian (transcortical) aphasia Mixed extrasylvian (transcortical) aphasia is an extremely unusual aphasic syndrome and just some few cases have been reported in the aphasia literature. Aphasia Handbook 51 Figure 3.
Most studies of island biogeography reveal a close association between the number of species and island size buy cheap glyset online, if all else is equal discount glyset 50mg otc. Discovery of the largest lungless tetrapod proven glyset 50 mg, Atretochoana eiselti (Taylor buy 50 mg glyset mastercard, 1968) (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Typhlonectidae), in its natrual habitat in Brazilian Amazonia. A typical species distribution model would likely overestimate the distribution of this frog whereas a mechanistic niche model should perform much better. Gandour (1998) concludes that "language representation in the brains of tone language speakers is essentially the same as that in non-tone language speakers" (p. For a review of apraxia treatment and also on other aspects of occupational therapy refer to Steultjens et al. Paraphasias are abundant and no significant associated neurological deficits are observed. Recurrent cerebrovascular events associated with patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, or both. Initially, show that a treatment works with some clients Select different clients who share the same personal (age, gender, health) and clinical characteristics (severity, age of onset) as the original subjects Repeat the treatment experiment Analyze the results to evaluate generality of the treatment method Systematic Replication. The recent analysis by Alex Pyron and his colleagues, based on 761 species, forms the basis for the colubroid portion of our updated tree. A Russian exile in England, Nicholas Ogarev, wrote, 3 4 5c 6 d A man was hanged who had cut his throat, but who had been brought back to life. Adaptation and evolution in Gallotia lizards from the Canary Islands: Age, growth, maturity and longevity. Snake mating systems, behavior, and evolution: the revisionary implications of recent findings. Causes of true vertical strabismus are 4th nerve palsy, Graves disease, blowout fracture, double elevator palsy (congenital fibrosis of inferior rectus muscle), orbit tumor. Aphasia may cooccur with speech disorders, such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which also result from brain damage. In recent years, genetic studies have become increasingly common for assessing new species and species complexes, leading to a much better understanding of diversity. A recent study by John Maerz and his colleagues showed how invasive earthworms in northern temperate forests in central New York and northeastern Pennsylvania are associated with a reduction in abundance of a plethodontid salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Self-Administered Computer Therapy for Apraxia of Speech: Two-Period Randomized Control Trial With Crossover. Hypoxemic Lung Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease Interstitial lung disease Sleep-disordered breathing Chronic hypoventilation 4. Approximately 70% of pts have long-term survival but usually at the cost of significant neurocognitive impairment. In most cases patients rehabilitated for anomia are required to produce the target words, but the strategies used are different. Classifying objects is part of human nature and has its origins deep in prehistory. Phylogenetic inference experienced major advances in theory and application during the last 20 years. FasanoN fascesp fasciaep fascialA fasciatelyv fasciateA fasciationN fasciaN fascicleN fascicularA fasciculatelyv fasciculateA fasciculationN fasciculeN fasciculusN fascilip fascinatedlyv fascinatedV fascinateV page 2. Whether the keratinized mouthparts are basal and thus plesiomorphic, or adaptations to a fossorial lifestyle, requires further study. The arrows indicate only the general pathway of blood flow through the ventricle into the aortic arches. We realize that this is an unashamedly phrenological view of metaphor and synaesthesia. Eggs on humid rocks, in rock crevices, or on tree roots above water; upon hatching, feeding semiterrestrial tadpoles live on rocks or in rock crevices in a water film 20. Each female picks up one or more sperm packets from the spermatophores and, during the next several days, deposits eggs. When neurons are damaged through processes such as tearing and shearing, they may reorganize through axonal resprouting, collateral sprouting, or developing supersensitivities to neurotransmitters. Normally, the frontal lobe consists of three prominent horizontal gyri (the superior, middle, and inferior gyri) that run in parallel from anterior to posterior. No Requires supplemental oxygen or other vital sign abnormality Yes A Risk factors for severe illness (Table 4)? Some aspects of demographic, genetic, and environmental stochasticity are examined in subsequent sections. Symptoms of dizziness and blankness may well be the result of dissociative states rather than neurological disease.
Superficially it appears as a series of pores on the head and body of aquatic larvae and some aquatic adults buy 50mg glyset visa, such as cryptobranchid order cheap glyset on line, amphiumid order generic glyset on line, proteid 50mg glyset mastercard, and sirenid salamanders; typhlonectid caecilians; and pipid frogs. Finally, neither Robey meta-analyses assessed the quality of methodology of the trials reviewed. Double dissociation A logical progression of scientific assumptions in localizing functional areas in the brain. Of cancer pts with hypercalcemia, 80% have humoral hypercalcemia mediated by parathyroid hormone related peptide; 20% have local osteolytic hypercalcemia mediated by cytokines such as interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor. Scalp acupuncture may be beneficial for improving verbal fluency, writing, reading and global speech and language, but not auditory comprehension. Certain areas of the brain look spongy, taking on a characteristic spongiform pattern. Because many amphibians are aquatic for part of their life, they are highly susceptible to the toxic effects of acid rain; however, their susceptibility is variable (Table 14. Walter Cannon, and later Philip Bard, argued the Glossary 515 conscious emotional experience can be divorced from bodily sensation or expression. Spelling errors observed in this group of patients are not usually phonologic, but may present a high degree of visual similarity with the target word (Roeltgen, 1983; Shallice, 1981). More than 15 teeth occur on the dentaries, and the posterior teeth are unicuspid or bicuspid. Some would argue for 28 days of treatment to prevent chronic pro- statitis, prostatic abscess. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase are elevated in ~70% of pts, and leukocytosis is common. Clinical Features Specific Treatments Serotonin receptor antagonists such as cyproheptadine, discontinue offending agent(s). Spatial neglect, with or without anosognosia, may also occur, particularly with right-sided lesions producing a left hemiparesis. Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) vary in body temperatures from 2633°C while active, even though environmental temperatures vary more widely. Many of these species have toxic alkaloids in their skin that aid in deterring predators. If wrong names are proposed to us, this singularly definite gap acts immediately so as to negate them. The new connections theory has been empirically demonstrated with episodic, explicit memory, and semantic memory (Burke & MacKay, 1997). The skull possesses paired nasals, postorbitals and squamosals, and a frontal and parietal; a parietal foramen usually perforates the frontoparietal suture. It has been observed that left-damaged non-fluent aphasic Aphasia Handbook 165 speakers of Chinese experience a tonal production deficit (Packard, 1986). Content: Three genera, Aplopeltura, Asthenodipsas, and Pareas, with 1, 3, and 11 species, respectively. Snakes are the most species rich of several groups of limbless or reduced-limbed lizards. BarlingN BarlowN barm cakeh barmaidN barmanN BarmecidalA BarmecideA BarmenN barmenp page 582 / 8. Discovery of a defensively malodorous and nocturnal frog in the family Dendrobatidae: Phylogenetic significance of a new genus and species from the Venezuelan Andes. Distributions of many species occur along steep habitat gradients, and, in many instances, one species is replaced by another that is closely related. The vertebral column contains a large, block-like proatlas, a crested neural spine on the axis, and a slightly or unnotched axial hypapophysis. In fact, the target grapheme is large enough to be resolved clearly and can be readily identified if the flankers are not present. Indeed, between the time that we completed this revision and the release date (approximately 8 months), additional taxa will be described and new phylogenies will appear rendering some of our taxonomies dated. Intracostal arteries arise from the dorsal aorta at nearly every trunk segment or at intervals of several segments. Stroke occurring during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal death . Other causes include previous myocarditis, toxins [ethanol, certain antineoplastic agents (doxorubicin, trastuzumab, imatinib mesylate)], connective tissue disorders, muscular dystrophies, "peripartum. See single photon emission computed tomography spectinomycin, for gonococcal infections, 560t561t speech audiometry, 350 spermatogenesis, 1147 spherocytes, 375 spider bite, 148149 spinal cord, anatomy of, 1253f spinal cord compression, 112114 approach to, 112 epidural abscess, 113 epidural hematoma, 114 from metastases, 1261t, 1262 neoplastic, 112113, 1253, 1254f oncologic emergency, 134135 treatment of, 113, 135, 135f spinal cord disease, 12511257 acute, 12531255 autonomic dysfunction in, 1238, 1251 cauda equina, 1253 cervical cord, 1251 chronic, 12551257 complications of, 1257 extramedullary, 1253 foramen magnum lesions, 1251 intramedullary, 1253 lumbar cord, 1252 sacral cord, 1253 subacute, 12531255 thoracic cord, 1251 treatable, 1252t weakness in, 329t, 330t spinal cord infarction, 1254 spinal manipulation, for chronic back pain, 304 spinal radiology, brucellosis vs. This classification of aphasias has become the most influential model of aphasia, significantly guiding research in the area over the last century. Acalculia Acalculia has been defined as an acquired disturbance in computational ability. In the immature brain, there are substantially more connections between (and within) areas than are present in the adult brain. In severe cases, pneumatic dilatation, or an extended myotomy should be considered. If the object is emotionally significant or salient such as a predator, prey or mate, the message gets relayed to the hypothalamic nuclei to prepare the body for fighting, fleeing or mating.
There are many medicines that help prevent blood clots from forming order cheap glyset, reducing the risk of a fullblown stroke buy genuine glyset line. This is suggestive of seizure onset in the limbic system glyset 50 mg otc, but is not lateralizing (cf generic 50 mg glyset with mastercard. Characteristics: Bolitoglossines have the typical vertebrate jaw mechanism in which the skull remains rigid and the lower jaw swings downward; the occipital condyles are short and atlanto-mandibular ligaments are absent. Although a gray area may be reopening at the phonologic and phonetic encoding interface (discussed later), the related theoretical issues will likely be more clearly defined than they have been in the past. Real-time visualization of middle cerebral artery infarction Perfusion harmonic imaging after SonoVue bolus injection can be used in patients with acute stroke. Heavy drinking may lead to serious physical and mental deterioration and may increase risk of stroke. While it would be useful to know the incidence (occurrence of first stroke events), in most populations data may be available on mortality from stroke only, but not on non-fatal events. The standard arrangement of letters on keyboards for typewriters and computers and certain Augmentative and Alternative Communication input devices. Adults are philopatric (they almost always return to their home pond) and when displaced, they return to their home pond. Zinc toxicity: zinc is an essential catalytic and structural element of numerous proteins and a secondary messenger which is released from excitatory synapses during neuronal activation. The skull has paired nasals, postorbitals, and squamosals, and a single parietal and frontal (occasionally paired); there is no evidence of a parietal foramen. However, the current data do not support the use of induced hypothermia for treatment of patients with acute stroke. Hyperthermia within the first 24 hours from stroke onset was associated with larger infarct volume and worse outcome, but the current data do not support the use of induced hypothermia aiming at a body temperature of 33 C for treatment of patients with acute stroke. Consciousness also changes in response to internal physiology and chemistry, with inputs from food and drugs. Clarity and precision, however, are needed to define the various concepts, so that appropriate terms may be chosen to express each of the underlying concepts unambiguously. Sensory system: Decreased sensitivity to vibratory perception; +/- pain, temperature, proprioception · Neuroanatomical correlates of some of these signs have been defined. Unformed or simple hallucinations are more common than formed or complex hallucinations. Les Tropidopheoidea (Serpentes; Alethinophidia) sont-ils rйellement monophylйtiques? Occasional embolic events with pulmonary emboli and/or systemic emboli when intracardiac defect. Efficacy and safety of anticoagulant treatment in acute cardioembolic stroke: a metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. All environmental data are then used to calculate a model of the fundamental niche for the species of interest. Attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder: Magnetic resonance imaging morphometric analysis of the corpus callosum. Bootstrap resampling is used often as an alternative to inference based on parametric assumptions when those assumptions are in doubt, such as the case in the current study of not knowing the underlying distribution given the multiple effects on naming 88 reaction time. Epileptic seizures due to thrombotic and embolic cerebrovascular disease in older patients. This activation of alternative pathways may be accompanied by the development of different strategies to deal with the new functionalanatomical situation at the behavioral level. Systematics of the pentadactylus species group of the frog genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae). Intensive language action therapy in chronic aphasia: A randomized clinical trial examining guidance by constraint. A wooden stick or pin is used to scratch the abdominal wall, from the flank to the midline, parallel to the line of the dermatomal strips, in upper (supraumbilical), middle (umbilical), and lower (infraumbilical) areas. Water is necessary to support the gills and to spread open all surfaces for gas exchange. Systematics and evolution of the Australian knob-tail geckos (Nephrurus, Carphodactylidae, Gekkota): plesiomorphic grades and biome shifts through the Miocene. Despite the positive effects of psychostimulant medications, these drugs also have several limitations: (1) side effects are common, such as temporary appetite suppression and sleep disruption; (2) the therapeutic effectiveness of the medications vary from child to child; (3) the child may show a brief intensification of core symptoms at the end of the last daily dose ("rebound effect"); (4) children often resist compliance with the medication regimen; (5) the medications have minimal effect on certain problems (such as learning disabilities); and (6) the medications do not "cure" the disorder. Buccal papillae extract large particles and funnel them directly into the esophagus. What are these, and what are some of the variables that might affect risk and cost in amphibians and reptiles? Regional differences in the regulation of dopamine and noradrenaline release in the medial frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen: A microdialysis study in the rat. Some stroke survivors become increasingly able to benefit from therapy once they have had time to adjust to the major life changes brought about by the stroke. Their speech is fluent with frequent sound and word substitutions so that it does not always make sense. These two major aphasic syndromes have been related to the two basic linguistic operations: selecting (language as paradigm) and sequencing (language as syntagm) (Jakobson, 1971; Jakobson & Halle, 1956; Luria, 1972/1983).